For definition of words, names, terms, phrases and places in Baha'i literature please see Baha’i Glossary



A  B-G  H-I  J-L  M  N-R  S  T-Z

'Aba-Basir: (Aqa Naqd-'Ali) Son of a Babi martyr of the 1850-51 Zanjan upheaval, he became one of Baha’u'llah's most steadfast followers in that city and was beheaded circa 1870 for refusing to recant his faith before a gathering of Muslim divines.

'Abdu'llah: The name of the father of Prophet Muhammad. He belonged to the family of Hashim, the noblest tribe of the Quraish section of the Arabian race, directly descended from Ishmael.

'Abdu'l-'Aziz, Sultan: (1830-76) The Sultan of Turkey from 1861 to 1876. He was responsible for Bahau'llah's banishments from Baghdad to Constantinople, from Constantinople to Adrianople, and from Adrianople to the prison-fortress of 'Akka. Willful and headstrong, he was known for his lavish expenditures and is stigmatized by Baha'u'llah in the Kitab-i-Aqdas as occupying the "throne of tyranny." Baha'u'llah prophesied his downfall in a Tablet addressed to Fu'ad Pasha, the Ottoman foreign minister during Baha'u'llah's imprisonment in 'Akka. As a result of public discontent, which was heightened by a crop failure in 1873 and a mounting public debt, Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz was deposed by his ministers in 1876. He died within a few days.

'Abdu’l-Aziz son of 'Abdu’l-Salam: A famous Muslim ecclesiastic of the Sunni sect.

‘Abdul-Baha: (Arabic), ‘Servant of Baha’: the title assumed by 'Abbas Effendi (23 May 1844- 28 November 1921), eldest son and appointed successor of Baha’u’llah, the Founder of Baha’i Faith, the Center of His Covenant, and authorized interpreter of His Writings. Named 'Abbas after His grandfather, 'Abdu'l-Baha was known to the general public as 'Abbas Effendi. ‘Abdu'l-Baha accompanied His father on His exiles, spending more than 40 years as a prisoner. After Baha’u’llah’s death in 1892, ‘Abdu’l-Baha became head of the Baha'i Faith, in accordance with provisions revealed by Baha'u'llah in the Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Book of the Covenant, and worked to maintain the unity of its followers. Freed by the Young Turks' Rebellion in 1908, ‘Abdu’l-Baha began to travel outside the Holy Land, making His first visit to Europe in 1911. Baha’u’llah gave Him such titles as “the Most Great Branch,” “the Mystery of God,” and “the Master.” He chose the name ‘Abdu’l-Baha, meaning “Servant of Baha’u’llah.” ‘Abdu’l-Baha is also known as the Perfect Exemplar of Baha’u’llah’s teachings.

'Abdu'l-Hamid II: (1842-1918) Sultan of the Ottoman Turkish Empire from 1876 to 1909, known as ‘the Great Assassin’. As the result of the plotting of Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali, in 1901 he restricted ‘Abdu'l-Baha's freedom, confining Him and His family within the city walls of Akka. He later sent two commissions of inquiry to investigate false charges made against ‘Abdu'l-Baha by the Covenant-breakers. Public discontent with his despotic rule and resentment against European intervention in the Balkans led to the military revolution of the Young Turks in 1908. 'Abdu'l Hamid was subsequently deposed in 1909.

Abi-Abdi’llah: Arabic term used in reference to Imam Jaafar Sadiq, the sixth Shi'ih Imam, (83-148 A. H.)

Abu-‘Ali-Sina: (980-1037 A. D.) or Avicenna. An Arab physician and philosopher born in Persia, known in the West as the Hippocrates and the Aristotle of the Arabs.

Abu-Dhar: Abu Dhar Ghefan, an illiterate shepherd who became an esteemed disciple of Muhammad.

Abu-Ja’far-i-Tusi And Jabir: Two Muslims who like Mufaddal handed down traditions from Imam Sadiq.

Abu’l-Fadl Gulpaygani, Mirza: (1844-1914) Preeminent Mrsian Persian Baha’i scholar and author; noted for his learned treatises on the Baha'i Faith, who was sent to the United States by ‘Abdu’l-Baha in 1901 to deepen the American Baha’is and to counter the attempts of Kheiralla to create a division within the American Baha’i community. He was named an Apostle of Baha'u'llah by Shoghi Effendi.

Abu’l-Qasim-i-Kashi: A learned Babi from Kashan, Persia, who was murdered in Baghdad by the followers of Mirza Yahya.

Abu’l-Qbsim-i-Hamadani, Aqa: (d. 1856) Sole companion of Baha'u'llah during His retirement to Sulaymaniyyih. He was set upon by highwaymen or frontier patrols and was mortally wounded. When found near death, he gave his name and bequeathed all his possessions to Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani, the name Baha'u'llah had assumed.

‘Abdu’l-Vahhab: A shopkeeper from Shiraz who embraced the Babi Cause and was imprisoned with Baha’u’llah in the Black Pit of Tehran. Baha’u’llah gave him His own shoes to wear on the way to his execution.

'Abdu'llah-i-Ubayy: A prominent opponent of Prophet Muhammad ; called "the prince of hypocrites."

Abu-Nasr: Abu-Nasr Farabi, Persian philosopher and writer who lived about the 4th Century, A. H.

Abraham: Considered by Baha’is to be a Prophet, or Messenger of God. Scholars give 2100 B.C 2000 B.C. as his dates. Regarded by Jews, Christians, and Muslims as the Friend of God and the Father of the Faithful. He is also recognized as the founder of monotheism and the father of the Jewish and Arab peoples. Muhammad, the Bab, and Baha’u’llah are among His descendants.

Abu-'Abdi'llah: Designation of the sixth Imam, Ja'far-i- Sadiq, great-grandson of Imam Husayn. He was poisoned by Mansur, the Abbaside Caliph. He died in 765 A.D.

Abu'Amir: An opponent of Prophet Muhammad; a monk.

Abu Jahl: Literally, "the Father of Folly"; so styled by the Muslims. An implacable enemy of Prophet Muhammad.

Afnan-i-Yazdi: (1830-1911) Also known as Haji Muhammad-Taqi, the Afnan, a cousin of the Bab and the chief builder of the first Baha’i House of Worship in ‘Ishqabad, in Russian Turkistan, which had been initiated by ‘Abdu'l-Baha in or about 1902. Taqi's state title was Vakil’ud-Dawlih. He was named an Apostle of Baha'u'llah by Shoghi Effendi.

Ahmad-i-Azghandi: (Mirza Ahmad) An erudite and ardent teacher of the Baha’i Faith, formerly one of the most outstanding Muslim divines of Khurasan. Before the Bab's declaration of His mission in1844, Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi compiled all of the Islamic prophecies and traditions pertaining to the advent of the long awaited Promised One, an immense work containing almost twelve thousand traditions.

Ahmad, Shaykh: Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsa’i, also known as Shaykh-i-Ahsa’i (1743-1826), he was the first of the two forerunners of the Bab, and the founder of the Shaykhi School of Islam. He authored about 96 books. He was a respected interpreter of Islamic doctrine and attracted many followers in the Shi’ih holy cities of Najaf and Karbala. His teachings, which emphasized the near advent of the Promised One of Islam, and the metaphorical rather than literal interpretation of certain scriptures (such as resurrection and Muhammad’s night journey to heaven), prepared the way for the Bab. While traveling in Persia near the end of his life, he chose as his successor a disciple named Siyyid Kazim, who eventually attained the presence of the Bab.

Alexander II, Czar: Emperor of Russia from 1855 to 1881. He instigated a number of reforms in his country, including the emancipation of the serfs. He was assassinated after a period of repression that instigated a surge of revolutionary terrorism.

'Ali: The son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad, the first of the twelve Imams. He was the cousin and first disciple of Muhammad and married to His daughter Fatimih.

‘Ali Muhammad: Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad, born in Shiraz, Persia, on October 20, 1819; the "Point of the Bayan" and the "Bab" and precursor of Baha'u'llah.

Amalekites: The people mentioned a number of times in the Hebrew Bible. They are considered to be descended from an Amalek ancestry.  They were expelled in early times from Babylonia. They spread through Arabia to Palestine and Syria and as far as Egypt, to which they gave several of its Pharaohs.

'Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khaum: Nee Mary Maxwell (1910-2000), also called Ruhyyih Rabbani; daughter of May Bolles Maxwell and Sutherland Maxwell of Montreal, Canada, and wife of Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Baha’i Faith. She served as the Guardian's secretary during his lifetime. On 26 March 1952, succeeding her illustrious father, she was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God residing in the Holy Land. Ruhiyyih (meaning "spiritual") is a name given to her by Shoghl Effendi on their marriage. Khanum is a Persian title meaning "lady," "Madame," or "Mrs." The title Amatu’l-Baha (meaning "Maidservant of Bahá”) was used by the Guardian in a cable to a conference in Chicago in 1953. Rabbani is a surname given to Shoghi Effendi by 'Abdu'l-Baha After Shoghi Effendi's passing in 1957, she traveled extensively to teach the Baha'i Faith, consolidate Baha'i communities, and serve as a representative of the Universal House of Justice at major events.

Amir-Nizam: One of the titles of the Prime Minister, Mirza Taqi Khan.

Anis: Literally ‘Close Companion’: Surname of Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Zunuzi, the youth who was martyred with the Bab in 1850.

Annas: High Priest of the Jews at the time of Christ and father-in-law to Caiaphas (John 18. V.13.).

Aqa Husayn-i-Isfahani: Distinguished calligraphist, and companion-in-exile of Baha’u’llah, surnamed “Mishkin-Qalam”: Musk-scented pen”, a name by which he as a calligrapher of the first rank was known. He first heard of the Faith in Isfahan, but it was in Baghdad that he learned more about it. In Adrianople he met Baha'u'llah and became His follower. When Baha'u'llah and His companions were exiled to 'Akka, Mishkin-Qalam was sent to Cyprus. He was eventually freed and came to the Holy Land in 1886. After travelling in Egypt, Damascus and India, 'Abdu'l-Baha asked him to come back to the Holy Land, where he passed away in about 1912. It is Mishkin-Qalam's calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name which Baha'is most commonly use as its symbol.

Aqay-i-Kalim: Also known as Mirza Musa, the faithful younger brother of Baha’u’1lah (d. 1887) who recognized the station of the Bab and of Baha’u’llah and faithfully served Baha’u’llah throughout His exiles. He often met with government officials and religious leaders on Baha’u’llah’s behalf until 'Abdu'l-Baha assumed that function.

Archbreaker of the Covenant: Mirza Muhammad-'Ali, a son of Baha’u’llah and younger half-brother of 'Abdu'l-Baha who attempted to subvert the provisions of Baha’u’llah’s written will and to seize leadership of the Baha’i community after the passing of Baha’u’llah.

Ashraf: Aqa Mirza Ashraf of the town of Abadih in Persia, martyred in Isfahan, October, 1888.

Ashraf: Siyyid Ashraf, born in the Fort of Zanjan during the siege.

Ashraf, Qudsiyyih:  First Persian woman to travel to the United States. She represented Baha’i women of the Orient at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adkar. 

‘Asiyih Khanum: Wife of Baha’u’llah and mother of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Bahiyyih-Khaum, and Mirza Mihdi. She married Baha’u’llah in 1835, accompanied Him throughout all of His exiles, and died in 1886. Baha’u’llah addressed her as Navvab (an honorific implying "Grace or "Highness") and designated her as the "Most Exalted Leaf" and His "perpetual consort in all the worlds of God."

‘Azim:  Literally ‘Great One’; a title given by the Bab to one of His disciples to whom He revealed the name and the advent of Baha'u'llah. (God Posses By p. 28). Later, he was instrumental in the plot against the shah. He refused to implicate Baha’u’llah falsely in the crime, although he knew that his refusal would result in his own death.

Bab, the: The title meaning “Gate”, assumed by Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad (1819-1850), after the declaration of His Mission in Shiraz, Persia in May, 1844, A.D. He is the Prophet-Founder of the Babi Faith, and the Herald and Forerunner of Baha'u'llah. The Bab proclaimed Himself to be the Promised One of Islam – the Qa’im and the Mihdi -- and announced that His mission was to alert the people to the imminent advent of "Him Whom God shall make manifest," namely, Baha’u’llah. Because of these claims, the Bab was executed in Persia by the order of Nasiri’d-Din Shah on 9 July 1850.

Bagdadi, Dr Zia: (d. 1937) Medical doctor from Iraq who settled in the United States in 1909 and was a prominent member of the Chicago Baha’i community. He represented the Arab Baha’is at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wilmette Mashriqu’l-Adkar.

Baha’u’lllah: Title, meaning “Glory of God,” assumed by Mirza Husayn-‘Ali Founder of the Baha’I Faith. Born on 12 November 1817, He declared His Mission as the Promised One of All Ages in April 1863 and passed away in Acre, Palestine on 29 May 1892 after 40 years of imprisonment, banishment, and house arrest. Baha'u'llah’s writings are considered by Baha’is to be direct revelation from God. Baha’u’llah’s title is recorded in the Persian Bayan of the Bab. Baha’is refer to Him with a variety of titles, including the Blessed Beauty, the Blessed Perfection, the Ancient Beauty..

Bahiyyih Khanum: (1846-1932) The saintly daughter of Baha’u'llah and Asiyih Khanum who beseeched her father to allow her to remain unmarried in order to devote herself to the service of His Faith. Baha’u'llah gave her the title of "the Greatest Holy Leaf," and she was designated as the outstanding heroine of the Baha’i Dispensation.

Balal: An Ethiopian slave in Mecca, illiterate and despised, but transformed by his recognition of Muhammad. The Prophet gave him the task of calling the Faithful to prayer, and he became the first Mu’adhdhin of Islam. As he stammered and mispronounced the Arabic letter 'Shin' as 'Sin', he could not give the call correctly, but the perfection of his heart atoned for the fault of his tongue.

Bani-Hashim: The family to which Prophet Muhammad belonged.

Bell, Alexander Graham: (1847-1922) ‘Scottish inventor and teacher of elocution and speech correction. He went to live in Canada in 1870. He developed a method of teaching speech to the deaf and in 1873 became professor of vocal physiology at Boston University. In 1876 he obtained a patent for the telephone, which he developed during long evening sessions with the mechanic Thomas Watson. His other inventions included the photophone, a device that transmitted sound on a beam of light, and the graphophone, which recorded sound on wax discs.’ At the time of ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s visit he lived in Washington DC.

Beloved of Martyrs, the: Title given to Mirza Muhammad-Husayn, who was martyred along with his brother Mirza Muhammad-Hasan-known as the King of the Martyrs -- at the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir of Isfahan.

Bosch, John: (1855-1946) California vintner who became a Baha’i in 1905 and subsequently changed his profession. His property at Geyserville, California, was used as a permanent Baha'i summer school from 1927 and was deeded to the American National Spiritual Assembly in 1936.

Bourgeois, Louis: (d. 1930) French-Canadian architect who became a Baha’i in the winter of 1906-7 and moved to West Englewood, New Jersey, to assist in the development of the Baha’i community. His design was chosen for the Mahriqu’l-Adhkar in Wilmette.

Breed, Alice Ives: (b. 1851) Well-known society and club woman of Boston and one of the early Baha’is in the United States. She was the wife of Francis W. Breed and the mother of Florence Breed, who married Ali Kuli Khan.

Brown, Professor Edward Granville: (1862-1926) Distinguished British orientalist from Cambridge who studied and published many books and articles on the Babi and Baha’i religions and who had four interviews with Baha’u’llah in 'Akka in 1890. He is best known to Bahi'is for his pen-portrait of Baha'u'llah.

Bryan, William Jennings: American politician who became Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson. He had tried to visit ‘Abdu’l-Baha while on his travels near ‘Akka but had been unable to do so. 'Although he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan was for many years a leader of the Democratic Party and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912. He . . . negotiated treaties with 30 countries, representing three-fourths of the world's population, for investigation of disputes before resorting to war. He published a paper called The Commoner and gave lectures advancing the cause of prohibition, of religion and of morality. Because of his opposition to war, he resigned from offce in 1915 in protest against the sinking of the Lusitania. After the war he moved to Florida and worked to advance moral and religious causes.' Compton’s Encyclopidia, America Online edition, January 1, 1993.

Buddha: Literally Enlightened One: title given to Siddhartha Guatama (c. 6th- c. 4th century B.C.), Whom Baha’is consider to be a Prophet, or Messenger of God. He is recognized as the founder of Buddhism.

Chase, Thornton: (1847-1912) Called by ‘Abdu'l-Baha 'the first American believer', Chase became a Baha’i in 1894 in Chicago and was the principal organizer of the Chicago Baha’i community. He founded the Behais Supply and Publishing Board in 1900, which was incorporated as the Baha’i Publishing Society in 1902. He wrote a number of pamphlets about the Baha’i  Faith, an introductory book, The Baha’i Revelation, and an account  of his pilgrimage in 1907, In Galilee. He was given the name Thabit (Steadfast) by ‘Abdu'l-Baha and was named a Disciple of  ‘Abdu’l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi. His grave site in Inglewood, California, is visited annually by the Baha’is.

Christ: (c. 6-4 B.C.-A.D. 30) Recognized by Baha’is as a Prophet, or Messenger of God, and the founder of Christianity. The Baha’i writings often refer to Christ as "the Spirit of God" and "the Son."

Cooper, Ella: (1870-1951) Prominent American Baha'i teacher who accepted the Faith in 1898 and, with her mother Helen Goodall, helped establish the first Baha’i community on the American West coast, in Oakland. She was among the third group of Western pilgrims to visit 'Akka, in March 1899. After her second pilgrimage in 1908 she and her mother published a small book, Daily Lessons Received at Acca.

Dayyan, Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Khuy: A Babi on whom the Bab conferred the designation 'Dayyan' (lit. 'conqueror' or 'judge'). After the martyrdom of the Bab, a number of His followers turned to Dayyan for guidance. He claimed to be 'He Whom God shall make manifest' but after meeting Baha’u’llah in Iraq he retracted the claim. Mirza Yahya instigated the murder of Dayyan in Baghdad, 'whom he feared and envied'. Dayyan was the third to recognize Baha'u'llah's true station before His Declaration.

D'Evelyn, Dr Frederick: Learned and staunch San Francisco Baha’i, elected chairman of the local community in 1911. He was encouraged by ‘Abdu’l-Baha to plan the first International Baha’i conference, in 1915.

Diya Pasha, Yusuf: Turkish Ambassador to the United States at the time of ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s visit.

Douglass, Frederick: (1817- 95) An African-American political leader who was at the forefront of the abolition movement and the women's rights movement.

Dodge, Arthur Pillsbury: (1849- 1915) Lawyer, publisher, inventor and self-made man who became a Baha’i in 1897. He was named a Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Dreyfus, Hippolyte: (1873-1928) Prominent French lawyer and the first Frenchman to become a Baha’i, in 1901. He wrote a number of works on the Baha’i Faith and translated several of Baha’u’llah’s writings into French. In 1911 he married Laura Clifford Barney with whom he had worked on a French translation of Some Answered Questions. He was named a Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Dreyfus-Barney, Laura: (1879-1974) Prominent American Baha’i who accepted the Faith in Paris around 1900. She made a number of extended visits to ‘Akka, asking- questions of ‘Abdu'l-Baha, the answers to which she later compiled as Some Answered Questions. She was twice decorated by the French government for her services to humanity.

Elijah: Hebrew prophet who taught that there is only one God.

Farid, Dr Aminu'llah: Nephew of ‘Abdu'l-Baha’s wife and a member of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's entourage, serving as translator for many of His talks. He began to solicit funds clandestinely from the American Baha’is, using a seal of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's which he had stolen. He was later declared a Covenant-breaker for his disobedience to ‘Abdu'l-Baha.

Fath’u’llah: One of three Babis who together attempted but failed to assassinate the shah in 1852, leading to a wave of persecution against the Babis and resulting in Baha’u’llah’s arrest and imprisonment in Tehran.

Fath-‘Ali Shah: A shah of Persia during the Qajar dynasty whose reign lasted from 1798to 1834. He gave the title "Buzurg, "meaning "Great," to Baha’u’llah’s father.

Fatimih: The daughter of Prophet Muhammad and Khadijh. She married 'Ali, the cousin of Muhammad, and had three sons. One died in infancy and from the other two, Hassan and Husayn, are descended the posterity of the Prophet known as Siyyids.

Fujita, Saichiro: (1886-1976) Young Japanese man who became a Baha’i in Oakland, California, in 1905, the second Japanese in the world to accept the Faith. He was invited by ‘Abdu'l-Baha to travel with His entourage to California from Chicago. For a time he lived with the family of Corinne True and in 1919 was invited to serve ‘Abdu’l-Baha in the Holy Land.  He served the Master and afterwards Shoghi Effendi until 1938, when he went to Japan for the duration of the second world war. In 1955 he returned to the Holy Land where he served Shoghi Effendi and then the Hands of the Cause and the Universal House of Justice.

Getsinger, Dr Edward: (1866-1935) Early American believer who had become a Baha’i by 1897. He and his wife Lua were the first American-born Baha'is to visit 'Abdu'l-Baha, remaining in the Holy Land from November 1898 to March 1899.

Getsinger, Lua: (1871-1916) Born Louisa A. Moore; an outstanding early American Baha’i traveling teacher who accepted the Faith in Chicago in April 1897 and traveled widely in the United States, Europe, and India. She and her husband, Edward, played a central role in opposing Kheiralla when he began to question the authority of ‘Abdu'l-Baha. She was among the first Western pilgrims to visit 'Abdu'l-Baha in Acre in 1898. Lua devoted nearly all her time to teaching the Faith, spending much time away from home. In 1914-15 ‘Abdu'l-Baha sent the Getsingers on a teaching trip to India. Lua went on to 'Akka and then Egypt, where she died of an illness she had contracted in India. She was given the title 'Herald of the Covenant' by ‘Abdu'l-Baha and was named a Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Baha and 'Mother Teacher of the West' by Shoghi Effendi.

Goodale, Mr. and Mrs. Henry L: Baha’is from Kenosha, Wisconsin in whose home 'Abdu'l-Baha stayed for one night on September 15, 1912.

Goodall, Helen: (1847-1922) Prominent American Baha’i teacher who accepted the Faith in 1898 and, with her daughter Ella Cooper, helped establish the first Baha’i community on the American West coast, in Oakland. After her first pilgrimage in 1908 she and her daughter published a small book, Daily Lessons Received at Acca. She was named a Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Haji Mirza Aqasi:  (d. 1849) Prime minister of Persia under Muhammad Shah, he prevented the meeting of Muhammad Shah and the Bab, ordered the successive imprisonments of the Bab in Mah-Ku and Chihriq, and saw to the arrest of Baha’u’llah. He fell from power after the death of Muhammad Shah and died poor and abandoned.

Haji Mirza Karim Khan: A pretender to knowledge, author of a book "Guidance to the Ignorant" ("Irshadu'l-'Avam"), whose works perished with him.

Haji Nasir: (of Kazim) One of the martyrs of Shaykh Tabarsi. (See Travellers Narrative, p. 307.)

Haji Shaykh Muhammad-‘Ali: A Baha'i merchant from Qazvin, Persia, who resided in Istanbul at the time of Baha'u'llah's sojourn there.

Haji Sulayman Khan: A courageous Babi sent by Baha’u’llah to Tabriz to recover the body of the Bab. He was himself martyred in Tehran two years after the Bab.

Hall, Albert Heath: (1958-1920) Lawyer, the son of a minister, who became a Baha’i between 1900 and 1903. While he was handling the case for the defense of Fred Mortensen, he taught the young man the Faith. Hall was president of the Executive Board of the Baha’i Temple Unity from 1911 to 1914.

Haman: Chief Minister of Pharaoh.

Hamzih: The "Prince of Martyrs," the title given to Prophet Muhammad's uncle.

Hannen, Joseph: (1872-1920) Leading Washington Baha’i and active teacher of the Faith who became a Baha'i shortly after his wife, Pauline. Along with his wife, he pioneered teaching the Faith to blacks in the United States. Among those they taught was Louis Gregory. In 1916 'Abdu'l-Baha sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He was named a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Hannen, Pauline: (1874-1939) American Baha’i teacher and advocate of racial unity who accepted the Faith in Washington DC in November 1902. She taught several members of her family the Faith, including her husband Joseph and her sisters Fanny Knobloch and Alma Knobloch. Overcoming her own racial prejudice, she began to teach blacks in Washington, opening her home for Baha’i meetings. She also organized the Baha’i children's classes in the city.

Harmon, W.W: Boston metaphysician and Theosophist who revered ‘Abdu’l-Baha, supported the Baha’i teachings and associated with the Baha’i community. His controversial explanation of the Baha’i writings caused a rift in the American Baha’i community.

Harris, Hooper: (1866-1934) American lawyer who became a Baha’i in New York City in 1899. He answered the call of 'Abdu’l-Baha in 1906 for an American to go to India to teach the Cause, leaving New York that year with Harlan Ober. They first went to 'Akka to receive instructions from the Master. 'Abdu'l-Baha sent with them two Iranian teachers, neither of whom could speak English: the elderly Hand of the Cause lbn-i-Abhar and Mirza Mahmud.

Haydar 'Ali, Haji Mirza: (c. 1830-1920) Prominent Persian Baha'i known by Western Baha’is as the 'Angel of Carmel'. He became a Babi and later met Baha’u’llah in Adrianople. He suffered many years of persecution and imprisonment in Egypt and the Sudan because of his fidelity to the Cause of Baha’u’llah. In his later years He served the Master in Haifa. He is the author of the interesting narrative called Bahjatus Sudour.

Hearst, Phoebe Apperson: (1842-1919) American philanthropist and mother of the newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst. She was a supporter of Green Acre and met Sarah Farmer in 1897. In 1898 the Getsingers called on her and she became interested in the Faith. She organized and financed the first pilgrimage of western Baha’is to 'Akka in 1898-9. She financed a number of Baha'i teachers and some Baha’i publications, including the first English translation of the Arabic Hidden Words. She began to distance herself from the Faith after some adverse newspaper publicity.

Herod: Herod I ("The Great"). An Idumaean by race, but brought up a Jew. He was appointed by the Roman Senate in 40 B.C. as King of Judea. He rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem.

Hisamu’s-Saltanih: Title of Prince Murad Mirza, grandson of Fath-'Ali  Shah of Persia.

Hoar, William H.: (1856-1922) Early American Baha'i, named a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi. Hoar heard of the Faith at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893 and became a Baha’i in January 1896. He was instrumental in forming the first Baha’i consultative body in New York, the New York Baha'i Board of Counsel, elected on December 7, 1900. He was elected to the Executive Board of the Baha’i Temple Unity in 1909, serving for three years.

Hud: A prophet sent to the tribe of ‘Ad. He was descended from Noah and Shem and is referred to in the Qur'an in surih 7:63-70; surih 11:5263; and in surih 26:123-139. He summoned the people to the worship of One God, but was rejected.

Husayn Khan, Mirza (Mushiru'd-Dawlih): Persian ambassador to Constantinople in the time of Baha’u’llah. Although involved in the banishment of Baha’u’llah from Baghdad, he testified at the court of Nasiri'd-Din Shah to the dignity, majesty and high-mindedness of Baha’u’llah.

Ibn-i-Anas and Asbahi: Two Arab zealots who directly took part in the murder of Imam Husayn.

Ibn-i-Mas’ud: 'Abdullah Ibn-i-Mas’ud, one of the early Arab Muslims at the time of Muhammad.

Ibn-i-Suriya: A learned Jewish Rabbi at the time of Muhammad.

Imam 'Ali: The first Imam of Shi’ah Islam. He was the cousin and first disciple of Prophet Muhammad; husband of Muhammad's daughter, Fatimih, and through his son Husayn, ancestor of Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad, the Bab.

Imam Husayn: In Shi’ih Islam, the third Imam, son of Ali and Fatimih and grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. He was martyred at Karbala, Iraq, in 680 AD., making Karbala a point of pilgrimage for Shiite Muslims.

Imam-Jum’ih of Isfahan: Mir Muhammad Husayn, "the She-Serpent" (successor in this post to his brother Mir Siyyid Muhammad who befriended the Bab-see Dawn-Breakers). He, with "the Wolf," Shaykh Muhammad Baqir persecuted the Baha’is and brought about the death of Mirza Muhammad Hasan and Mirza Muhammad Husayn (The King and the Beloved of Martyrs), who were decapitated together.

'Imran: The father of Moses and Aaron; See Qur'an, surih 3: 30 and the Bible, Exodus 6:20.

Isfandiyar: Loyal servant of the household of Baha'u'llah, a member of the family entrusted with marketing and other family affairs. Despite the great danger to his own life when Baha’u’llah was imprisoned in the Siyah-Chal, he remained in the household to serve the holy family. Baha’u’llah’s wife sent Isfandiyar to Mazandaran in northern Iran to be safe but he returned one week later to Tehran to personally pay the household's debts.

Ives, Rev Howard Colby: (c. 1876-1941) Unitarian minister, pastor of the Brotherhood Church, Jersey City, New Jersey who became a Baha'i after meeting 'Abdu'l-Baha. His autobiography, Portals to Freedom, is an account of his conversion to the Baha’i Faith. (Please see Baha’i Heroes and Heroines).

Jani, Haji Mirza: Merchant who was the first to become a Babi in Kashan. He was an early historian of the Babi Cause and was later martyred.

Javad: Haji Siyyid Javad, one of the earliest Babis, extolled by both the Bab and later by Baha'u'llah whom he met in Baghdad.

Joseph: The son of Jacob, and in the Qur'an an inspired prophet.

Ka'b-Ibn-i-Ashraf: He was an implacable foe of Prophet Muhammad. He conspired with the Prophet's arch-enemy, Abu Sufyan, to compass the Prophet's death.

Kamal, Haji Mirza: a famous Babi of high education who met and recognized the station of Baha'u'llah in Baghdad before His declaration. He wished to tell the News to everyone and was sent back to Persia.

Kamal Pasha: One of the Turkish dignitaries at the Court of Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz.

Kazim: Mulla Kazim martyred in Isfahan. (See Travelers Narrative, p. 400 note).

Khadijih Khanum: The mother of Baha’u’llah and the second wife of Mirza Buzurg.

Khan, Ali Kuli: (1879-1966) Distinguished Baha’i and diplomat who came to the United States in 1901 as a translator for Mitza Abu'l-Fadl. His marriage to Florence Breed in 1904 was the first marriage between a Persian and an American Baha'i. He was an early translator of some of the most important works of Baha'u'llah into English.

Killius, Mr. and Mrs. Albert C.: Baha'is who represented Spokane, Washington at the Fourth Annual Convention of the Baha'i Temple Unity in Chicago, April 27 to May 1, 1912.

King of Martyrs, the: A title referring to Mirza Muhammad-Hasan, an honored and wealthy citizen of Isfahan who was killed along with his brother at the instigation of the imam-jum’ih of that city. Baha’u’llah gave him the title of the Beloved of Martyrs.

Kinney, Edward: (1863-1950) and Carrie: (1878-1959) Wealthy New York Baha’is. Edward, a musician, was introduced to the Baha'i Faith by Howard MacNutt in the winter of 1895 and wrote to 'Abdu'l-Baha confirming his belief the same night. Carrie became a Baha’i shortly afterwards. In 1907 'Abdu’l-Baha asked the Kinneys to go to Egypt to help Zia Bagdadi establish the first tuberculosis hospital in Alexandria. On their return to New York their large home at 780 West End Avenue became a meeting place for Baha’is. 'Abdu'l-Baha gave His first talk in America here on April 11, 1912. 'Abdu'l-Baha named Edward 'Saffa' (serenity) and Carrie 'Vaffa' (certitude).

Knobloch, Fanny: (1859-1949) One of three sisters (the others are Alma Knobloch and Pauline Hannen) born in Germany who migrated to the United States. She became a Baha'i in Washington DC in 1904. She was the guest of 'Abdu'l-Baha while He was in Dublin, New Hampshire, and was invited to Paris as His guest in 1913. In 1923 she pioneered to South Africa.

Krishna: Considered in Hinduism to be the eighth or ninth avatar, or incarnation, of the God Vishnu. Baha’is believe that Baha’u’llah is the return of the spirit of Krishna.

Krug, Dr Florian: (b. 1859) New York surgeon who was initially opposed to the Faith but became a Baha’i after meeting 'Abdu'l-Baha in 1912. It was he who closed the lids of the Master's eyes after He passed away.

Krug, Grace: (d. 1939) American Baha’i teacher who heard of the Faith around 1904, accepting it a few years later, despite initial opposition from her husband. She was in Haifa with her husband when 'Abdu'l-Baha passed away in November 1921.

Lunt, Alfred E.: (d. 1937) Prominent Boston Baha’i lawyer who became a Baha’i shortly after hearing a lecture by Ali Kuli Khan in the winter of 1905. He was engaged by Sarah Farmer as her lawyer in her struggle to keep Green Acre in the hands of the Baha’is. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Baha’i Temple Unity and later of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States.


Luqman: A famous legendary figure noted for his wisdom. (see Qur'an Surih 31)

MacNutt, Howard: (d. 1926) Lawyer, company executive and early New York Baha’i. Howard learned of the Faith from Kheiralla in January 1898 and he and his wife, Mary, became Baha’is shortly afterwards. They moved to Brooklyn in 1902 and became the nucleus of Baha’i activity there. After observing a Nineteen Day Feast in' Akka in 1905, he and his wife helped to establish the Feast in North America, hosting what was perhaps the first Feast to be held in the country in May 1905. His ideas about the station of 'Abdu'l-Baha differed from those held by other Baha’is and he fell out with some, particularly Arthur Dodge. He also failed to break off his relationship with Covenant-breakers when 'Abdu'l-Baha requested him to do so. He publicly repented of this in November 1912. He collected and edited 'Abdu'l-Baha's talks given in America, publishing them as The Promulgation of Universal Peace.

Maryam: A cousin of Baha’u’llah who embraced the Babi Faith in its early days. She helped take care of Baha’u’llah after His release from prison and remained a devoted and loyal follower throughout her life.

Mathew, Louisa: (1866-1956) British Baha'i who accepted the Faith in Paris. She traveled with 'Abdu'l-Baha on the S.S. Cedric. 'Abdu’l-Baha intimated to her that He would be pleased if she would marry Louis Gregory, whom she had met on pilgrimage. Their marriage in September 1912 was the first marriage between a black and a white Baha'i. From the 1920s Louisa spent most of the year teaching the Faith in Eastern Europe, returning to the United States in the summers to be with her husband.

Maxwell, Mary: (1910-2000) Hand of the Cause of God and prominent Baha’i lecturer and traveler. The daughter of Sutherland and May Maxwell, she married Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Baha’i Faith, in 1937. Shoghi Effendi gave her the title Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum. Amatu'l-Bahá means "Handmaiden of Glory". She was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1952.

Maxwell, May Ellis Bolles: (1870-1940) Prominent early American Baha'i and teacher of the Faith. She learned of the Faith in Paris when Phoebe Hearst brought her group of pilgrims through on the way to 'Akka. May joined the party, arriving in the Holy Land in February 1899. This marked her acceptance of the Faith. When she returned to Paris she formed the first Baha'i group in Europe. In 1902 she married William Sutherland Maxwell and moved with him to Montreal, where their home became a focus of teaching. Their daughter, Mary, was born in 1910. May traveled widely For the Faith and was named a martyr by Shoghi Effendi when she passed away in Buenos Aires.

Maxwell, William Sutherland: (1875-1952) Hand of the Cause of God and outstanding Canadian architect. In 1902 he married May Ellis Bolles and their home in Montreal became a center of Baha'i activity. He became a Baha’i after meeting 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka in 1909. After the passing of his wife in 1940, he moved to the Holy Land at the suggestion of Shoghi Effendi, who had married Sutherland's daughter Mary in 1937. He designed the superstructure for the Shrine of the Bab and supervised its construction. He was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1951.

Mills, Mountfort: (d. 1949) Eminent lawyer who became a Baha'i in 1906. He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and prepared the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws of the National Spiritual Assernbly in 1927. He successfully appealed the case of the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad to the League of Nations.

Mirza ‘Abbas Buzurg: (d. 1839) Also known as Mid ‘Abbs, he was the father of Baha’u’llah. A vizier to a son of Fath-‘Ali Shah and a governor under Muhammad Shah, he was respected for his artistic and intellectual abilities as well as his integrity and personal charm.

Mirza Ahmad:  Alias, Mulla 'Abdu'l-Karim of Qazvin, a devoted follower of the Bab and of Baha'u'llah and amanuensis of the Bab, who before His death sent through him His gifts and effects to Baha'u'llah.

Mirza ‘Ali-Akbar: A cousin (paternal) of the Bab and intimate friend of Dayyan. Murdered by the followers of Mirza Yahya.

Mirza Aqa Jan: (1837-1901) Secretary of Baha’u’llah who accompanied Him throughout much of His exiles.

Mirza Aqa Khan: The prime minister of Persia from 1851 to 1858 under Nasiri’d-Din Shah. He was related to Baha’u’llah through the marriage of his niece and made futile efforts to protect Baha’u’llah’s relatives.

Mirza Buzurg Khan: The Persian consul-general in Baghdad who, from his arrival there in 1860, allied himself with Shaykh ‘Abdu'l- Husayn in an effort to destroy Baha’u’llah. After many futile attempts to discredit Baha’u’llah and take His life, they eventually succeeded in precipitating His transfer from Baghdad to Constantinople.

Mirza Hadi Dawlat-Abadi: A noted divine from Isfahan who became a prominent follower of Mirza Yahya, later identified as his successor.

Mirza Husayn Khan, Mushiru’d-Dawlih: The Persian Ambassador at thc Sublime Porte through whose influence Baha'u'llah was transferred from Baghdad to Constantinople. (see God Passes By, pp. 146 and 159).

Mirza Mihdi: (1848-70) Son of Baha’u’llah and brother of ‘Abdu’l-Baha who died at age twenty-two from injuries received in a tragic accident at the prison- barracks in Acre. He served as his Father's amanuensis. After his death Baha’u’llah bestowed on him the title of ‘The Purest Branch’.

Mirza Musa: (d. 1887) Also known Aqay-i-Kalim. A younger brother of Baha’u’llah who recognized the station of the Bab and of Baha’u’llah and faithfully served Baha’u’llah throughout His exiles. He often met with government officials and religious leaders on Baha’u’llah’s behalf until ‘Abdu'l-Baha assumed that function.

Mirza Mustafa:  One of the Bab's followers who was executed at Tabriz soon after the Bab's martyrdom.

Mirza Rida-Quli: One of Baha'u'llah's brothers who could not recognize His station.

Mirza Safa: Haji Mirza Hasan-i-Safa, , an accomplice of Mirza Husnyn Khan, in active hostility towards Baha'u'llah in Constantinople.

Mirza Taqi Khan: Prime minister of Persia under Nasiri’d-Din Shah who was involved in persecuting Babis at the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi, at Nayriz, and at Zanjan. He was also involved in the execution of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran and ordered the execution of the Bib. He later fell out of favor with the royal court and was killed by royal decree.

Mirza Vahhab-i-Khurasani: Also known as Mirza Javad, a prominent early believer who lived during the ministry of the Bab and Baha'u'llah.

Moody, Dr Susan I.: (1851-1934) American physician who became a Baha’i in 1903 in Chicago. At 'Abdu'l-Baha's invitation she went to Persia in 1909 to provide medical care for the Baha’i women. She founded the Tarbiyat School for Girls in Tehran in 1910. She lived in Persia for 15 years.

Mortensen, Fred: (1887-1946) Juvenile delinquent who became a Baha’i through his lawyer, Albet Hall, and who 'rode the rods' to see 'Abdu'l-Baha in Green Acre. He spent many years teaching the Faith across the United States and was a member of the Chicago community for 21 years.

Moses: One of the six great Prophets, according to Islam. See Exodus 4:16, where God says to Moses: "thou shalt be to him instead of God"; and Exodus 7:l: "I have made thee a god to Pharaoh." Moses led the exodus from Egypt, which is now dated about 1440 B.C.

Mott, Lucretia: (1793-1880) A Quaker minister who was active in the movements for peace, women's rights, and the abolition of slavery. She was a primary organizer of the first women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, in June 1848.

Muhammad: Arabic, literally means: “The Praised One”. The Prophet and Founder of Islam and Revealer of the Qur'an. Born August A.D. 570. Declared His Mission A.D. 613. He was the son of ‘Abdu’llah of the family of Hashim. Fled to Medina A.D. 622, (See Some Answered Questions, pp. 22-29). Foretold by Moses, Deut. 18:I5; by St. John the Divine, Rev. 11 (see Some Answered Questions, p. 53 ff.). Baha’is regard Muhammad as a Manifestation of God and His book, the Qur'an, as holy scripture.

Muhammad 'Ali, Mirza: (1853-1937) 'Abdu'l-Baha's half-brother, the arch-breaker of Baha’u’llah’s Covenant.

Muhammad 'Ali Mirza: Shah of Iran following the death of Muzaffaru’d-Din Shah in 1907. He abdicated in 1909.

Muhammad-Quli: A faithful half-brother of Baha’u’llah who accompanied Him in His exiles.

Muhammad-Taqi Manshadi, Siyyid: Persian Baha'i living in Haifa, and later Port Said, through whom Tablets and letters were sent and received. The Covenant-breakers attempted to win him to their cause but he remained loyal to 'Abdu'l-Baha.

Mulla 'Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Yazdi: At first a Jewish priest, he accepted Islam, joined the Shaykhi School and was converted by Mulla Husayn to the Babi Faith.

Mulla ‘Ali Jan:  A believer of Mazindaran, martyred in Tihran. (see God Passer By, p. 201)

Mulla 'Aliy-i-Baraqani: Uncle of Tahirih, one of the most learned and famous members of the Shaykhi community. Being converted to the Babi Faith, he became in Tihran one of its most earnest and able expositors.

Mulla 'Aliy-i-Bastami: One of the Letters of the Living. Sent on a special mission by the Bab from Shiraz in 1844, he became the first to suffer and to lay down his life in the path of this new Faith.

Mulla Baqir: A native of Tabriz and a man of great learning, became a Letter of the Living. He was with Baha'u'llah in Ntur, Mazindaran and Badasht. Outlived all other Letters of the Living.

Mulla Husayn: (d. 1849) A leading follower of Siyyid Kazim, he was the first to recognize the Bab as the Promised One, thereby earning the title Babu'l-Bab (Gate of the Gate) and becoming the first of the Bab's eighteen Letters of the Living. He was born in 1813. He was a student of Siyyid Kazim for nine years and a follower of the Bab for five years. He was a leader of the Babis during the siege at the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi, in which he was martyred on February 2, 1849.

Mulla Mihdiy-i-Khu'i: A close companion of Baha’u’llah and tutor to the children of His household. Martyred at Tabarsi.

Mulla Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Zanjani: Surnamed Hujjat. "One of the ablest and most formidable champions of the Faith" (Cod Passes By, p. 44), the leader of the Babis in what Lord Curzon called "the terrific siege and slaughter" they suffered at Zanjan where he with 1800 fellow disciples was martyred.

Mulla Ni'matu'llah-i-Mazindarani: A Babi martyred at Shaykh Tabarsi.

Mulla Yusuf-i-Ardibili: A "Letter of the Living," martyred at Shaykh Tabarsi.

Munirih Khanum: (d. 1938) Literally “Illumined”: the name bestowed on Fatimih Khanum, who came to Acre at Baha’u’llah’s invitation to marry ‘Abdu'l-Baha in 1873. She is also known as the Holy Mother.

Nabil-i-Zarandi, Nabil-i-A‘zam: (d. 1892) Nabil literally means “noble, learned”. Title of Muhammad-i- Zarandi, the author of The Dawn-Breakers. He learned about the Babi Faith at the age of 16 and met Baha’u’llah in 1851. He made several journeys on behalr of Baha’u’llah, was imprisoned in Egypt and is the only person known to have made the two pilgrimages to the House of the Bab in Shiraz and the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad in accordance with the rites set out by Baha’u’llah. After the passing of Baha’u’llah, and at the request of 'Abdu'l-Baha, he arranged a Tablet of Visitation from Baha’u’llah’s writings which is now used in the Holy Shrines. Shortly afterwards, overcome with grief, he walked into the sea and drowned.

Nadr-Ibn-i-Harith: An opponent of Prophet Muhammad.

Najaf-‘Ali:  One of the 44 survivors of Zanjan who were brought to Tihran and all of them executed save Najaf-'Ali, on whom an officer took pity. But some years later he was arrested again and beheaded. (See God Passes By, p. 178).

Nakhjavani, Mirza 'Ali-Akbar: Member of 'Abdu'l-Baha’s entourage. His son 'Ali Nakhjavani was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

Napoleon III: Emperor of France from 1852 until 1870. He enjoyed two decades of prosperity until he led his country to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71).

Nasiri’d-Din Shah: Shah of Iran, 1848-96. Under his reign the Bab was executed and Baha’u’llah was imprisoned and exiled. Baha’u’llah addressed him in a tablet delivered by Badi', whose torture and death were consequently ordered by the shah. Called the "Prince of Oppressors” by Baha’u’llah, Nasiri'd-Din Shah was assassinated in 1896.

Nebuchadnezzar: King of Babylon. In 599 B.C. he captured Jerusalem, and in 588 B.C. he destroyed the city and removed most of the inhabitants to Chaldaea.

Nimrod: In Muhammadan commentaries represented as the persecutor of Abraham.

Noah: A prophet to whom Muhammadans give the title of the "Prophet of God," see Gen. 6:10 and Qur'an, surihs 11, 71, for an account of his life and of the Flood.

Nutt, Dr. William Frederick: Early American Baha'i active in Chicago who later broke the Covenant.

Ober, Harlan: (1881-1962) Early American Baha'i traveling teacher. He learned of the Faith in 1905 and became a Baha'i in 1906. Shortly afterwards he traveled to India with Hooper Harris in answer to 'Abdu'l-Baha's call for American Baha’is to visit the country. He served on the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity for a number of years. In 1912, at the suggestion of 'Ahdu'l-Baha, he married Grace Robarts; 'Abdu'l-Baha Himself presided at the ceremony. His friendship with Louis Gregory took him on many teaching trips to the Southern states and he was much in demand as a public speaker. After the passing of his wife in 1938 he remarried and, in 1956, pioneered in Pretoria, South Africa. In 1957 he was appointed a member of the Auxiliary Board for Protection in Africa.

Parsons, Agnes: (1861-1934) Washington DC society matron and early Baha’i. She heard about the Baha’i Faith in 1908 and became a confirmed believer during her pilgrimage to 'Akka in 1910. She was 'Abdu'l-Baha's hostess during His stay in Washington and arranged for Him to visit Dublin, New Hampshire, her summer residence. On her second pilgrimage, in 1920, 'Abdu'l- Baha instructed her to organize the first race amity conference, which she did in 1921, working closely with Louis Gregory.

Parsons, Arthur Jeffrey: (1856-1915) Husband of Agnes Parsons and a librarian at the Library of Congress.

Peary, Admiral Robert Edwin: (1856-1920) American Polar explorer. At his seventh attempt he became the first person to reach the North Pole, on April 6. 1909. He accomplished this by sailing to Cape Sheridan in the Roosevelt then traveling by sled to the Pole.

Pope Pius IX: The pope whose reign from 1846 to 1878 was distinguished for his promulgation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.

Prince Shuja’u’d-Dawlih: A Persian Prince attached to the Embassy in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz.

Qarun: A cousin of Moses, who having believed in Moses, turned against Him and with his fellow-rebels was destroyed by the wrath of God. (See Numbers Ch. 16).

Qasim:  One of three Babis who together attempted but failed to assassinate the shah of Persia in 1852, leading to a wave of persecution against the Babis and resulting in Baha’u’llah's arrest and imprisonment in Tehran.

Quddus: (d. 1849) Literally ‘Most Holy’: title bestowed by the Bab on Haji Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Barfuruhi, the last Letter of the Living, who was second only to the Bab in rank. He accompanied the Bab on a pilgrimage to Mecca and attended the Conference of Badasht. He joined the Babis in the fort at Shaykh Tabarsi and afterward was taken to his native town of Barfurush, where he was killed by a mob.

Queen Marie of Romania: (1875-1938) Queen of Romania from 1914 to 1927 and the first monarch to embrace the teachings of the Baha’i Faith. She learned of the Baha’i Faith from Martha Root. Her association with the Baha’i Faith is described in Della A. Marcus, Her Eternal Crown, Queen Marie of Romania and the Baha’i Faith (Oxford: George Ronald, 2000).

Ralston, Wiiam and Georgia: Early California Baha’is. Georgia was a childhood friend of Ella Goodall Cooper and learned of the Faith from her and Helen Goodall around 1910. She traveled with Helen and Ella to New York to see 'Abdu'l-Baha.

Ransom-Kehler, Keith: (d. 1933) A distinguished American Baha’i who traveled to Persia to represent the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the United States and Canada with a petition requesting the removal of a ban on the entry and circulation of Baha’i literature. She died in Isfahan in Iran on 23 October 1933. (see Baha’i Heroes and Heroines)

Remey, Charles Mason: (1874- 1974) Prominent early Baha'i and traveling teacher, appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1951 but declared a Covenant-breaker in 1960. Remey became a Baha’i in Paris in December 1899 and served the Faith devotedly for many years in various capacities. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity. In 1909 he and Howard Struven set out on the first round the world Baha’i teaching trip, one of his many journeys to teach the Faith. He was appointed president of the International Baha'i Council in 1951. After the passing of Shoghi Effendi in 1957, he broke the Covenant.

Riday-i-Shirazi, Aqa: Believer exiled with Baha’u’llah to 'Akka.  Between Baghdad and Constantinople he and Mirza Mahmud traveled ahead of the party to prepare the food and make arrangements for the comfort of the believers.

Root, Martha: (1872-1939) An American Baha’i known for her unique exertions in the field of international teaching, which carried her around the globe four times over a period of some twenty years. She spoke of the Baha’i Faith to kings, queens, high-ranking government and religious officials, professors, leaders of thought, and other prominent people. An account of her life is presented in M.R Garis, Martha Root, Lioness at the Threshold (Wilmette: Baha’i Publishing Trust, 1983).

Robarts, Grace: (d. 1938) Early American Baha'i teacher whose marriage to Harlan Ober in 1912 was at the suggestion of- 'Abdu'l-Baha. She secured and made ready the various apartments in which 'Abdu'l-Baha stayed during His journey in America. Her nephew, John Robarts, was appointed a Hand of the Cause.

Roosevelt, President Theodore: (1858-19 19) 26th President of the United States, 1901-9.

Ruha Khanum: Third of 'Abdu'l-Baha's four surviving daughters. She married Mirza Jalal, the son of the King of Martyrs. She broke the Covenant in the 1940s.

Ruhiyyih Khanum: (1910-2000) Born Mary Maxwell, also called Ruhiyyih Rabbani; daughter of May Bolles Maxwell and Sutherland Maxwell of Montreal, and wife of Shoghi Effendi Rabbani, the Guardian of the Baha’i Faith. ‘Ruhiyyih’ (meaning "spiritual") is a name given to her by Shoghi Effendi on their marriage. ‘Khaum’ is a Persian title meaning "Lady," "Madame," or "Mrs."

Ruz-bih: A Persian who embraced Christianity and being told a Prophet was about to arise in Arabia journeyed thither and meeting Muhammad at Koba in His flight to Medina recognized His station and became a Muslim.

Sadiq: The sixth of the Shi’ih Imams

Sad-i-Isfahani:  Refers to Sadru’l-Ulama of Isfahan , a follower of Mirza Yahya.

Salih: An ancient Arabian prophet of later date than Hud Who gave similar summons. He is mentioned in the Qur'an, surih 7:71-77. Some commentators identify him with the Salih of Genesis 11:13.

Salman, or Shaykh Salman: Born in southern Persia, an illiterate, he became one of the most beloved and most devoted disciples of Baha'u'llah who entrusted him with many dangerous and important missions. He carried many Tablets from Baha’u’llah for distribution among the friends in Persia. He also conducted Munirih Khanum to 'Akka before her marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Baha.

Sam Khan: The colonel of the Armenian regiment that was ordered to execute the Bab in 1850. Sam Khan reluctantly carried out his orders and, upon witnessing the miraculous event of his regiment's failed attempt, refused to take any further part in the execution. At the risk of his own life, he ordered his men to leave the barracks.

Samiri: A magician employed by Pharaoh as a rival to Moses. According to Muslims, it was he, not Aaron, who made the golden calf.

Sardar ‘Aziz Khan: He was present with the Shah’s troops attacking Babis at Zanjan. (see Traveller's Narrative, p. 181 note)

Shaykh ‘Abdu'l-Husayn: A mujtahid who became inflamed by the prestige and devotion commanded by Baha’u’llah in Baghdad and allied himself with Mirza Buzurg Khan, the Persian consul-general in Baghdad, to destroy Him. Eventually the two succeeded in having Baha’u’llah transferred from Iraq to Constantinople by the Ottoman government.

Shaykh Effendi: Name by which Baha’u’llah became known outside of the Baha’i community.

Shaykh Hassan: Served as a scribe for the Bab during His imprisonment in Mah-Ku and Chihriq. Later in life he traveled to Karbala at the request of the Bab, where he attained the presence of Baha’u’llah.

Shoeb: Priest of Midian (Exodus 2:16-21). Moses married his daughter; Exodus 18 gives his name as Jethro.

Shoghi Effendi: (1897-1957) The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith after the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Baha in 1921, designated in His Will and Testament as His successor in interpreting the Baha'i writings and as Head of the Faith. He was the eldest grandson of 'Abdu'l-Baha and was brought up in ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s household in 'Akka. In his youth he became his grandfather's secretary for a time before leaving the Holy Land to study at the University of Oxford. When ‘Abdu’l-Baha passed away Shoghi Effendi became head of the Baha'i Faith. Under his guidance the Baha’i administration was developed and the Faith taken to virtually every country in the world. In 1937 he married Mary Maxwell. He passed away in London, where he is buried.

Shu'a'u'llah, Mirza: Son of Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali, ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s half-brother, and the arch-breaker of the Covenant. He arrived in the United States in 1905 and remained until the 1930s or 1940s. He attempted to win converts to his father's cause from among the Baha’is but was unsuccessful.

Siyyid ‘Ali: The maternal uncle of the Bab who, after the passing of the Bab's father, was responsible for the Bab's upbringing. He recognized his nephew's station and became an ardent follower.

Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjani:  Martyred with 'Aba Nazir (See God Passes By, p. 199 and Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah, p. 135)

Siyyid Husayn-i-Turshizi: A mujtahid, one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihran.

Siyyid Ibrahim: Surnamed 'Khalil' by the Bab; a deeply trusted disciple of the Bab from the earliest days. Later in Baghdad recognized the true station of Baha'u'llah, Who protected him against Yahya's designs.

Siyyid Isma’il: A believer from the time of the Bab, who sacrificed his life for love of Baha'u'llah, and was given the title of 'Zabih'.

Siyyid Javad: known as Karbila’i, was brought up in Karbila. He was a disciple of Siyyid Kazim Rashti, and a friend of the Bab's great uncle, he met the Bab as a child and later through Mulla 'Ali Bastammi became a Babi. He recognized Baha'u'llah before His Declaration, in Baghdad, and was known because of his sanctity as 'Siyyih-i-Nur'. He passed away in Kirman, Persia.

Siyyiid Kazim: The Chief disciple of Shaykh Ahmad and his successor who carried on his work and message, preaching the imminent advent of the Qa’im. Mulla Husayn and other distinguished Babis were among his students. He died on December 31, 1843.

Siyyid Muhammad: A Babi of unsavory character who became a companion of Mirza Yahya, inducing him to oppose Baha’u’llah and to claim prophethood for himself. Baha’u’llah refers to him in the Kitab-i-Aqdas as the one who led Mirza Yahya astray. Shoghi Effendi referred to him as “the Antichrist of the Baha’i Revelation”.

Siyyid of Findirisk: A noted Persian poet and thinker better known as Mir ‘Abdu’l-Qasim Findiriski, who lived in the 16th Century, A.D.

Siyyid Yahya, surnamed Vahid: A distinguished divine of great learning who became a Babi and was martyred after the siege of Nayriz on June 29, 1850, ten days before the death of the Bab.

Sohrab, Mirza Ahmad: (d. 1958) Persian Baha'i and a major translator of Abdu'l-Baha’s Tablets into English. He had been sent by 'Abdu'l-Baha to the United States in 1903 to translate for Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. He settled in Washington DC and became well-known in the American Baha'i community. After the passing of ‘Abdu'l-Baha he opposed the establishment of the Baha'i administrative order decreed in the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu'l-Baha and was declared a Covenant-breaker.

Son of Wolf: Shaykh Muhammad Taqi, known as Aqa Najafi, a priest of Isfahan (a city in central Iran) whose father had caused the death of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of the Martyrs.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady: (1815-1902) A leader of the American women's rights movement who was a primary organizer of the first women's rights convention (1848) in Seneca Falls, New York. She wrote the Declaration of Sentiments - a women's bill of rights with demands for social equality, including the right to vote.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher: (1811-1896) New England author best known today for her novel tided ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)’ whose human portrayal of slaves galvanized the abolitionist cause just before the American Civil War.

Struven, Howard and Hebe: Early Baltimore Baha’is. Howard's brother, Edward, learned of the Baha’i Faith from Lua Getsinser and became a Baha’i immediately. Howard became a Baha’i in 1899. In 1909 'Abdu'l-Baha asked him to travel around the world with Mason Remey, the first round the world Baha’i teaching trip. He married Hebe (Ruby) Moore, Lua Getsinger's sister, in 1912.

Subh-i-Azal: Arabic means the Morn of Eternity: A younger half-brother of Baha’u’llah who broke away from Baha’u’llah, claiming to be the Bab's successor. His spurious challenge was unsuccessful, and he was exiled to Cyprus by the Ottoman authorities at the time Baha’u’llah and His companions were sent to Acre. He died in Cyprus in 1912

Tahirih: (1817-1852) Literally ‘the Pure One’: title given by the Bab to Fitimih Umm-Salamih, also known by the titles Qurratu’l-Ayn (Solace of the Eyes) and Zarrin-Taj (Crown of Gold) – the outstanding heroine of the Babi Dispensation. Born in the same year as Baha’u’llah (1817), she was a woman of learning and the only female Letter of the Living. She was executed in Tehran for her beliefs.

Thompson, Juliet: (1873-1956) Prominent early American Baha’i and artist. She learned about the Faith from May Bolles in Paris and became a Baha'i in 1901. After a few years she settled in New York. In 1909 she went to 'Akka on pilgrimage and met 'Abdu'l-Baha, to whom she became devoted. When He arrived in New York in 1912, she followed Him everywhere and He agreed to allow her to paint His portrait. Juliet wrote a moving story about Mary Magdalen which was published in 1940.

Truth, Sojourner: (c. 179 9-1883) Name taken by IsabeIla Baumfree, black abolitionist and women's rights advocate from Ulster County, New York, who became the first black woman to speak out publicly against slavery.

True, Corinne: (1861-1961) Prominent early Chicago Baha'i teacher and Hand of the Cause of God. Corinne learned of the Baha'i Faith in 1899. The deaths of five of her eight children between 1899 and 1909 drew her closer to the Faith. 'Abdu'l-Baha asked her to spearhead the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar (Baha’i temple) in Wilmette, a task she undertook energetically over a number of years and for which she was known as the 'Mother of the Temple'. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in 1922. She was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1952. Her services are described in Nathan Rutstein, Corinne True, Faithful Handmaid of ‘Abdu'l-Baha (Oxford: George Ronald, 1987).

Tubman, Harriet: (c. 1820-1913) A leading abolitionist during the American Civil War. She escaped from slavery and led more than three hundred slaves to freedom in the North with the aid of the Underground Railroad.

Vahid: Literally ‘Peerless’: Title given by the Bab to a leading Muslim clergyman, Siyyid Yahya (d.1850), an erudite, eloquent, and influential emissary of Muhammad Shah. He was sent by the Shah to interrogate the Bab but was instead converted and became one of the most learned and influential of His followers. He died in the upheaval at Nayriz.

Valiyu'llah Khan-i-Varqa, Mirza: (1884-1955) Prominent Persian Baha'i and Hand of the Cause of God. The son of the martyr-poet Mirza 'Ali-Muhmmad-i-Varqa, Va1iyu'llah Khan-i-Varqa joined ‘Abdu'l-Baha's entourage in America. He was appointed Trustee of the Huququ’llah in 1940 and a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951.

Varqa, Mirza 'Ali-Muhammad: Persian Baha'i martyred, together his twelve-year-old son, Ruhu'llah, by the brutal Hajibu'd-Dawlih.

Waite, Louise R.: (d. 1939) Poet-composer who became a Baha'i sometime before 1902 in Chicago. She was given the Persian name Shahnaz Khanum by the Master.

Wilhelm, Roy C.: (1875-195 1) Prominent New Jersey Baha'i and wealthy entrepreneur posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God. Roy learned of the Baha'i Faith through his mother but did not become a Baha'i himself until he accompanied his mother on her pilgrimage to 'Akka in 1907. In 1908 he met Martha Root and introduced her to the Faith. In 1909 he was elected to the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity, serving on this and its successor, the American National Spiritual Assembly, almost continuously until 1946. At 'Abdu'l-Baha's behest, a unity Feast was held in the grounds of his home in West Englewood, New Jersey, in June 1912, an event which is commemorated every year. He was posthumously appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi on December 23, 1951.

Wilson, President Woodrow: (1856-1924) 28th President of the United States (1913-21). His '14 points', upholding democracy and self-determination of states, was intended to form the basis for a peace treaty after World War I. He was largely responsible for the establishment of the League of Nations. His presidency ended in failure when the Versailles treaty was not ratified by the American Senate.

Windust, Albert R.: (1874-1956) Early Chicago Baha'i and publisher. He became a Baha'i in 1897 and was a member of the first Spiritual Assembly of Chicago. He became the first publisher of Baha'i literature in the West, including the Hidden Words. In 1910 he founded and printed the Baha'i magazine Star of the West and later collected and published three volumes of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Tablets to American believers. He also helped Howard MacNutt to publish The Promulgation of Universal Peace.

Wolf, the: Name given by Baha’u’llah to Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, a divine of Isfahan who in 1879 ordered the death of the two brothers known as the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs.

Yahya, Mirza: (c. 1831/2-1912) A younger half-brother of Baha’u’llah who turned against Him and caused division and enmity among the Babis. He was known by the title Subh-i-Azal (Morn of Eternity) given to by the Bab, Who appointed him temporary leader of the Babi community until the appearance of the One foretold by the Bab. He later claimed to be the Bab's successor but was unsuccessful in his spurious challenge and was eventually exiled to Cyprus by the Ottoman authorities at the time Baha’u’llah and His companions were sent to Acre. He died in Cyprus in 1912.

Yamamoto, Kanichi: (1879-1961) First Japanese Baha’i. Kanichi learned of the Faith in Hawaii after leaving Japan. He became a Baha'i in 1902. In 1903 he left Hawaii to become a butler to Helen Goodall's family in Oakland, California. He arranged the meeting at the Japanese YMCA at which 'Abdu'l-Baha spoke on Octobel-7, 1912.

Zarqani, Mirza Mahmud-i-: (c.1875-1924) Persian Baha’i travel teacher and chronicler of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's travels in the Wrest. In his youth Mahmud made travel teaching trips around Iran. From 1903 he began to go to India, where he traveled for several years and learned Urdu. During this period he went on pilgrimage to Haifa, where he was responsible for transcribing Tablets, and from there he accompanied 'Abdu'l-Baha on His journey to Europe and America.